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Europe & Russia

Posted On: 05-01-2015 By: Jon Raeside


See below for our guide to European emissions legislation guidelines.

Euro-Study-brochure-coverInteger also publishes a comprehensive European Diesel Emissions Control & Adblue Market Study >> which details current and future legislation, provides insight into how the SCR technology market is developing and covers how and where supply model infrastructure is expanding. It also gives AdBlue® producers, distributors and component suppliers insight into what demand will be and where it will come from.

European Union Heavy-Duty Passenger Cars/Light Duty Non-Road
Inland Waterway Diesel Vessels Rail Traction Vehicles
Russia Heavy-Duty Passenger Cars/Light Duty Non-Road
Turkey Heavy-Duty Passenger Cars/Light Duty Non-Road

European Union

Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

The EU’s heavy-duty emission standards are applicable to new motor vehicles with a technically permissible maximum laden mass of over 3,500 kg, with engines that operate on diesel, natural gas or LPG. The first set of standards, Euro I, were introduced in 1992, and since then the EU has progressively sought to tighten these standards. In October 2008 the Euro V standards came into force for new vehicle models issued during the year (the standards became applicable for all existing models a year later). In July 2009 the EU approved a set of stricter emission standards – Euro VI – which will come into force in January 2013 for new models (2014 for new registrations of existing models). To promote the early introduction of Euro VI-certified vehicles, EU member states may utilise tax incentives, subject to a number of conditions. These benefits may also take the form of incentives to encourage the scrapping of existing vehicles or retrofitting existing vehicles in order to meet Euro VI standards.

Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Emission Standards (g/kWh)*

Legislation Implementation Date NOx CO HC PM
Euro I 01/01/1992, < 85 kW 01/01/1992, > 85 kW 8.008.00 4.504.50 1.101.10 0.610.36
Euro II 01/10/199601/10/1998 7.007.00 4.004.00 1.101.10 0.25
0.15
Euro III 01/10/2000 5.00 2.10 0.66 0.10 – 0.13
Euro IV 01/10/2005 3.50 1.50 0.46 0.02
Euro V 01/10/2008 2.00 1.50 0.46 0.02
Euro VI 01/01/2013 0.40 1.50 0.13 0.01

* based on ESC/ELR test cycle. Dates shown are in relation to new models; regulations for
existing models are applicable a year later.

Top of Page

Passenger Cars and Light Duty Vehicles

The EU’s standards for emissions emanating from new diesel engine passenger cars and light-duty vehicles were first introduced in July 1992 as EC93 (now commonly referred to as Euro 1). The current set of standards, Euro 5, was introduced in September 2009 for new models (January 2011 for all models). There are varying emission standards for passenger cars and light-duty vehicles, with the latter type further sub-divided into four categories according to vehicle mass. The newly-announced standards, Euro 6, are set to be introduced in September 2014 for new models (January 2015 for all models), which entail notable reductions in emission levels for light-duty vehicles. As with the heavy-duty emission standards, EU member states are allowed to use tax incentives in order to encourage the early introduction of Euro 6-compliant vehicles.

Light Commercial Diesel Vehicle Emission Standards (g/km)*

Legislation Date Vehicle Category/Size NOx HC + NOx
CO PM
Euro I 01/07/1992 N1, ≤ 1305 kgN1, 1305 – 1760 kg

N1, > 1760 kg

0.971.40

1.70

2.725.17

6.90

0.140.19

0.25

Euro II 01/01/1996 N1, ≤ 1305 kgN1, 1305-1760 kg

N1, > 1760 kg

0.701.00

1.20

1.001.25

1.50

0.080.12

0.17

Euro III 01/01/2000 N1, ≤ 1305 kgN1, 1305-1760 kg

N1, > 1760 kg

0.500.65

0.78

0.560.72

0.86

0.640.80

0.95

0.050.07

0.10

Euro IV 01/10/2005 N1, ≤ 1305 kgN1, 1305-1760 kg

N1, > 1760 kg

0.250.33

0.39

0.300.39

0.46

0.500.63

0.74

0.0250.040

0.060

Euro V 01/09/2009 N1, ≤ 1305 kgN1, 1305-1760 kg

N1, > 1760 kg

N2

0.180.235

0.28

0.28

0.230.295

0.35

0.35

0.500.63

0.74

0.74

0.0050.005

0.005

0.005

Euro VI 01/09/2014 N1, ≤ 1305 kgN1, 1305-1760 kg

N1, > 1760 kg

N2

0.080.105

0.125

0.125

0.170.195

0.215

0.215

0.500.63

0.74

0.74

0.0050.005

0.005

0.005

* dates shown are in relation to new models

Passenger Diesel Car Emission Standards (g/km)*

Legislation Date NOx HC + NOx
CO PM
Euro I 01/07/1992 0.97 2.72 0.140
Euro II 01/01/1996 0.70 1.00 0.08
Euro III 01/01/2000 0.50 0.56 0.64 0.05
Euro IV 01/10/2005 0.25 0.30 0.50 0.025
Euro V 01/09/2009 0.18 0.23 0.50 0.005
Euro VI 01/09/2014 0.08 0.17 0.50 0.005

* dates shown are in relation to new models; regulations for existing models are applicable a year
later (except for Euro VI – standards apply for all existing models as from January 2015)

Top of Page

Non-Road Vehicle Engines

The EU’s non-road diesel engine emission standards are applicable for several types of equipment, including industrial drilling rigs, bulldozers, forklift trucks, aerial lifts and mobile cranes. The EU typically specifies two types of dates for the implementation of these standards – the market placement date, which applies to all new engines placed on the market (i.e. new and existing models) and the type approval date, which is applicable for new models only (typically comes into force one year before the market placement date). Following the introduction of Stage I and II standards between 1999 and 2004, the new Stage III and IV standards were adopted in April 2004, with the same standards for emissions emanating from agricultural and forestry tractors adopted in February 2005. Stage III standards are further sub-divided into two categories – Stage IIIA and IIIB – with the former coming into force between 2006 and 2008, whilst the latter shall be introduced between 2011 and 2012, depending on engine power. Stage IV regulations, which only pertain to non-road vehicles with a net engine power exceeding 56 kW, shall in turn come into force in 2014.

Stage III A Non-Road Diesel Engine Emission Standards (g/kWh)

Category
Date (placement on the market) HC + NOx CO PM
130 ≤ kW ≤ 560 01/01/2006 4.00 3.50 0.20
75 ≤ kW < 130 01/01/2007 4.00 5.00 0.30
37 ≤ kW < 75 01/01/2008 4.70 5.00 0.40
19 ≤ kW < 37 01/01/2007 7.50 5.00 0.60

Stage III B Non-Road Diesel Engine Emission Standards (g/kWh)

Category
Date (placement on the market) NOx HC + NOx CO PM
130 ≤ kW ≤ 560 01/01/2011 2.00 3.50 0.025
75 ≤ kW < 130 01/01/2012 3.30 5.00 0.025
56 ≤ kW < 75 01/01/2012 3.30 5.00 0.025
37 ≤ kW < 56 01/01/2013 4.70 5.00 0.025

Stage IV Non-Road Diesel Engine Emission Standards (g/kWh)

Category
Date (placement on the market) NOx HC + NOx CO PM
130 ≤ kW ≤ 560 01/01/2014 0.40 0.19 3.50 0.025
56 ≤ kW < 130 01/10/2014 0.40 0.19 5.00 0.025


Top of Page

Inland Waterway Diesel Vessels

Emissions for new diesel engine inland waterway vessels are regulated by the EU’s Stage IIIA standards for non-road diesel engines (there are no Stage IIIB and Stage IV standards). Emission standards vary depending on the vehicle engine’s displacement per cylinder. For engines with a displacement below 2.5 litres per cylinder, the Stage IIIA standards came into force in January 2007, whilst standards for the remaining engines were introduced in January 2009. These standards are largely based on the EPA’s regulations for marine engines, both in terms of stringency and engine categories used.

Inland Waterway Diesel Emission Standards (g/kWh)

Displacement (dm3 per cylinder) Date HC + NOx CO PM
D ≤ 0.9, kW > 37 01/01/2007 7.50 5.00 0.40
0.9 < D ≤ 1.2 01/01/2007 7.20 5.00 0.30
1.2 < D ≤ 2.5 01/01/2007 7.20 5.00 0.20
2.5 < D ≤ 5 01/09/2009 7.20 5.00 0.20
5 < D ≤ 15 01/09/2009 7.80 5.00 0.27
15 < D ≤ 20, kW ≤ 3300 01/09/2009 8.70 5.00 0.50
15 < D ≤ 20, kW > 3300 01/09/2009 9.80 5.00 0.50
20 < D ≤ 25 01/09/2009 9.80 5.00 0.50
25 < D ≤ 30 01/09/2009 11.00 5.00 0.50


Top of Page

Rail Traction Vehicles

These standards were announced in April 2004 as part of the EU’s Stage IIIA and IIIB standards for non-road diesel engines. Rail traction vehicles have been categorised into two classes, namely railcars and railroad locomotives. Stage IIIA standards came into force between 2006 and 2009, depending on engine power, whilst Stage IIIB standards shall be introduced in January 2012 for railcars and railroad locomotives.

Stage IIIA Rail Traction Diesel Engine Emission Standards (g/kWh)

Category (kW)
Date NOx HC + NOx HC CO PM
130 < kW (Railcars) 01/01/2006 4.00 3.50 0.20
130 ≤ kW ≤ 560
(Railroad Locomotives)
01/01/2007 4.00 3.50 0.20
kW > 560 (Railroad
Locomotives)
01/01/2009 0.60 0.50 3.50 0.20

Stage IIIB Rail Traction Diesel Engine Emission Standards (g/kWh)

Category (kW)
Date NOx HC + NOx HC CO PM
130 < kW (Railcars) 01/01/2012 2.00 0.19 3.50 0.025
130 < kW (Railroad
Locomotives)
01/01/2012 4.00 3.50 0.025

Top of Page


Russia

Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

Russia has introduced European standards for new diesel engine vehicles. The current standards for existing models are based on Euro IV standards and apply to both manufactured and imported heavy-duty vehicles.

Russian Federation: Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Emission Standards (g/kWh)

Reference Legislation Date NOx CO PM
Euro I 01/01/1999 8.00 4.50 0.36
Euro II 01/04/2006 7.00 4.00 0.15
Euro III 01/01/2008 5.00 2.10 0.10 – 0.13
Euro IV 01/01/2010(for new vehicle models) 3.50 1.50 0.02
Euro V 01/01/2014* 2.00 1.50 0.02

*proposed date for Euro V type approval deadline. Euro IV vehicles approved before the 01/01/2014 can be produced and entered into use until the 31/12/2015.

Top of Page

Passenger Cars and Light Duty Vehicles

The current diesel engine emission standards for new light-duty vehicles also apply to both manufactured and imported vehicles.

Russian Federation: Light Duty Diesel Engine Emission Standards (g/km)

Date
Reference Legislation
01/01/1999 Euro I
01/01/2006 Euro II
01/01/2008 Euro III
01/01/2010 Euro IV (for new vehicle types)
01/01/2014* Euro V (for new vehicle types)

* All vehicle sales and registrations will require Euro 5 from January 2016 onwards.



Top of Page

Non-Road Vehicle Engines

As with the on-road regulations, the non-road vehicle emission standards for new diesel engines are based on their equivalent EU regulations.

Russian Federation: Non-Road Diesel Engine Emission Standards (g/kWh)

Date Reference Legislation
01/01/2000 EU Stage I
01/01/2009 EU Stage II (for new models)
01/01/2014* EU Stage III (for new models)

 * Delayed until next standards are approved in the Customs Union.


Top of Page

Turkey

Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines

Turkey’s emission standards for diesel engine vehicles are based entirely on European legislation, in part due to its EU accession efforts.

Turkey: Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Emission Standards (g/kWh)

Date*
Reference Legislation
01/01/2001 Euro I
01/01/2007 Euro IV
01/01/2011 Euro V
01/01/2015 Euro VI

* date applicable for new models.


Top of Page

Passenger Cars and Light Duty Vehicles

Euro 5 emission standards have been introduced.

Turkey: Passenger Car and Light Duty Diesel Engine Emission Standards (g/km)

Date*
Reference Legislation
01/01/2001 Euro 1**
01/01/2007 Euro 2
01/01/2010^ Euro 5

* date applicable for new models. For existing models, compliance is required one year later.
** applicable for passenger cars (category M1) only.
^applicable to categories M1 and N1 class 1. The legislation applied to other categories in 2012.


Top of Page

Non-Road Vehicle Engines

At present, emission standards for new non-road diesel vehicles (including mobile non-road vehicles, inland waterway vessels and rail engines) are equivalent to the EU’s Stage IIIA regulations, which were introduced in January 2010. For mobile non-road vehicles with engine power between 37 and 560 kW, Stage IIIB standards are expected to come into force between January 2011 and 2013, whilst proposals are in place for Stage IV standards to become applicable in January 2014 for vehicles with engine power between 130 and 560 kW (October 2014 for power rating between 56 and 130 kW). Similarly, diesel powered rail engines are expected to be compliant with Stage IIIB standards in January 2012.

Turkey: Mobile Non-Road Diesel Engine Emission Standards (g/kWh)

Date* Reference Legislation Reference Legislation
01/04/2003 37 ≤ kW ≤ 560 EU Stage I
01/01/2007 18 ≤ kW < 560 EU Stage II
01/01/2010 19 ≤ kW < 560 EU Stage IIIA
01/01/2011 130 ≤ kW < 560 EU Stage IIIB
01/01/2012 56 ≤ kW < 130 EU Stage IIIB
01/01/2013 37 ≤ kW < 56 EU Stage IIIB
01/01/2014 130 ≤ kW < 560 EU Stage IV
01/01/2014 56 ≤ kW < 130 EU Stage IV

*market placement dates.

Turkey: Inland Waterway Diesel Engine Emission Standards (g/kWh)

Date*
Reference Legislation Reference Legislation
01/01/2010 37 ≤ kW EU Stage IIIA

*market placement dates.

Turkey: Rail Diesel Engine Emission Standards (g/kWh)

Date
Reference Legislation Reference Legislation
01/01/2010 130 ≤ kW EU Stage IIIA
01/01/2012 130 ≤ kW EU Stage IIIB

*market placement dates.

Top of Page

Related Research:

The Monitor: AdBlue, DEF & ARLA 32 markets >>
The-Monitor-brochure-cover-11As the leading publisher of diesel emissions research, conferences and consultancy, Integer’s flagship quarterly publication, The Monitor, offers unrivalled analysis, insights and forecasts for the AdBlue® / DEF / ARLA 32 community. Featuring clear colour maps, extensive charts and data tables, and in-depth expert commentary, it is the ideal reference for those in need of business-focused research that is both easy-to-use and, crucially, easy-to-reference.